IT IS USEFUL TO KNOW
What is the inventory?
Inventory is a complex of actions for checking of the actual existence and a condition of property of the organization, its financial obligations for a certain date and the subsequent comparison of the obtained data with data of accounting.
Classification of inventories
From the point of view of the basis (appointment) of carrying out:
- planned inventory — according to the schedule and accounting policies of the organization, is approved by the head;
- unplanned inventory — owing to the circumstances which developed at the enterprise;
- repeated inventory — if there are doubts in reliability, objectivity and quality of the obtained data;
- control inventory — represents control checks of requirements' observance of inventory carrying out with participation of members of the inventory commissions and responsible persons of the organization where inventory was carried out.
From the point of view of carrying out methodology:
- selective inventories — it is carried out on the concrete type of goods, or the property fixed for concrete the financially responsible person;
- continuous inventory — is carried out in all structural departments..
From the point of view of volume:
- the full — cover all types of inventory items, money and the settlement relations with other organizations;
- the partial — the covering part of means of the organization.
General rules of carrying out inventory
According to the Order of the Finance Ministry of the Russian Federation from June 13, 1995 No. 49 "Methodical instructions for inventory of property and financial obligations", the general rules of carrying out inventory say:
- A number of inventories in reporting year, date of their carrying out, the list of property and the financial obligations checked at each of them are established by the head of the organization, except cases when carrying out inventory is obligatory;
- Operating inventory commission is created for carrying out inventory in the organization constantly;
- The members, constantly operating and working inventory commissions, claim the head of the organization (absence at least of one member of the commission when carrying out inventory forms the basis for recognition of results of inventory invalid);
- Before checking of the actual existence of property of the inventory commission it is necessary to receive the last at the time of inventory receipt and account documents or reports on the movement of material values and money;
- The inventory commission provides completeness and accuracy of entering into inventories of Fixed Assets given about the actual remains, stocks, goods, money, other property and financial obligations, correctness and timeliness of registration of materials of inventory;
- The actual existence of property at inventory is defined by obligatory calculation, weighing, measurement;
- Check of the actual existence of property is made with obligatory participation of responsible persons;
- It is necessary to apply forms of primary registration documentation to registration of inventory;
- The control inspections of inventory’s correctness can be carried out before the end of inventory;
- In the organizations with the big nomenclature of values, selective inventories of material values in places of their storage and processing can be spent in time of the between inventory period.
Order and terms of carrying out inventory
According to article 12 of the Federal law from 21.11.96 No. 129-FZ "About accounting" the order and terms of carrying out inventory are defined by the head of the organization, except for cases when carrying out inventory is obligatory.
Such cases are described in point 27 of Regulation on conducting accounting and accounting reports in the Russian Federation (authorized by the order of the Finance Ministry of the Russian Federation from 29.07.98 No. 34n):
- at transfer of property in rent, sale, when transforming the state or unitary municipal unitary enterprise;
- before drawing up annual accounting reports;
- at change of responsible persons;
- at identification of the facts of plunder, abuse or damage of property;
- in case of natural disaster, the fire or other emergency situations;
- by reorganization or liquidation of the organization;
- in other cases provided by the law.
Number of inventories in reporting year, dates of their carrying out, the list of property and the financial obligations checked at each of them are fixed in the order on accounting policies the next financial year.
As accurate legislative fixing of number of inventories on time isn't present, we will provide approximate recommendations. Depending on a type of property and obligations of the organization, it is necessary to carry out inventory:
- one time in three years:
- fixed assets;
- once a year:
- material and production stocks (before drawing up annual accounting reports);
- capital investments (before drawing up the annual report and balance, but not earlier than December 1 of financial year);
- incomplete capital repairs;
- work in progress (before drawing up the annual report and balance, but not earlier than October 1 of financial year, and also in the terms established by the relevant higher organizations);
- two times a year:
- receivables and payables (for June 1 and for December 1);
- calculations for payments in the budget;
- forms of commodity-transport consignment notes;
- once a month:
- money, monetary documents, values and forms of the strict reporting;
- raw materials and materials;
- on the 1st day of every month:
- calculations of the organization with its structural divisions allocated for separate balance with affiliated (dependent) societies, and also calculations for joint activity;
- in process of receiving extracts:
- inventory of calculations with banks (according to settlement and other accounts of the organization).